Living organisms are made up of a complex array of biomolecules, including proteins, DNA, and RNA, which undergo a variety of chemical modifications in order to acquire new functions and exert control over the higher functions of cells and organs. External chemical, physical, and biological stresses, as well as internal factors, such as genetic variations and aging, can disrupt the state of these modifications, causing the onset of disease and disrupting biological functions. Our research focuses on RNA modifications in particular. By employing state-of-the-art mass spectrometry technology and RNA analysis methodologies, we aim to investigate how RNA modifications regulate physiological functions, such as metabolism and immunity. Additionally, we explore how the dysregulation of RNA modifications contributes to aging-related diseases, such as diabetes and inflammation using cells, animal models, and human subjects as research materials. Notably, the new generation of vaccines that contain chemically modified mRNA has been a driving force in the control of the COVID 19 pandemic. This underscores the essential nature of RNA and its modifications, which are key to understanding the complexity of life, as well as in the development of next-generation medicine. Our team conducts research every day with the hope of contributing to a better understanding of life and the development of new treatments for diseases through RNA and its modifications.